ALCOHOL AND LIQUOR
liquor has long been known in Indonesia since the days of the Hindu kingdom. The influx of Islam brought a great influence on people’s behavior because prohibit the drinking of liquor. In some regions of Indonesia different types of drinking hard traditional, made of various materials are different, such as Brem, Saguer, Toak, Arak. The materials for making beverages made from the tape, sap water, coconut flower, palm. The drinker not only small people but also the nobility, traditional leaders, event, block party, family party.
Is a clear liquid, easy to evaporate and easy to move, colorless, typical smell, the taste of summer. Alcohol is flammable by providing the flame is blue and not smoky. But other than alcohol is Aethanol, Ethanol, or Ethyl Alcohol. In the trade we know some of the alcohol:
-) absolute alcohol. This alcohol is almost pure alcohol with a blood alcohol content calculated for C2H5OH amounted to 99.8% water and 0.2%.
-) ethanol. In general in the field of medicine or pharmacy if it is only called Aethanolum or alcohol course, then the question is the alcohol content of 95% to 96.8% v/v
-) ethanol dilutum. The other name is ethanol diluted with an alcohol content of 69.1-71% v/v
B. the Manufacture of Alcohol
In industries, alcohol is created by way of yeasting a carbohydrate (for Example “drops” as the rest on the manufacture of sugar) then distilled repeatedly or rise until the obtained alcohol in accordance with the levels of the desired
In the Laboratory, alcohol is made by means of reacting chemicals using a catalyst or not to obtain alcohol which is almost pure
C. the Use of Alcohol
Alcohol is widely used in industry, laboratories, and others. In the field of medicine or pharmacy alcohol used as a solvent, a preservative, an antiseptic, or a germ killer. In the booze alcohol is the main ingredient with the levels of the assortment, for example, whiskey, brandy, beer, wine, also in the traditional drinks, for example, rice wine powder, wine drugs, and others. In western countries the case of death and accidents caused by alcohol intoxication greater than in Indonesia. The excessive use of alcohol until it becomes acute rarely causes death but death is often an indirect result, for example, traffic accidents, drowning, and so on.
In the brain tissue, the levels of alcohol more than in blood and urine is 1.2-1.3 times the alcohol content in the blood. Within the first 30 minutes, the absorption reached 58% and then 88% in the first hour, then 93% in the first 90 minutes. Absorption of alcohol through the stomach and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity a bit, which is the largest through the small intestine, ie, up to 80%
The speed and the amount of absorption of alcohol in the body depend on:
-) The levels of alcohol drunk. The higher the levels of alcohol drunk faster, and a lot of alcohol that can be absorbed by the body
-) The amount of alcohol drunk, the more alcohol you drink the more the alcohol content found in the body
-) The state of the mucosa of the stomach and intestines, when it is in the empty state the faster absorption by the body
-) The habit of drinking, when a person accustomed to drinking alcohol then the faster absorption by the body
The metabolism of alcohol in the body occurs in the liver and occurs in oxidation. The speed of oxidation in the body of an adult is an average of 10 ccs to 15 ccs every hour. Alcohol that is not oxidized will be excreted through the urine.
1. Too much drinking of hard liquor for example:
– on a gamble or drink alcohol
– crisis psychiatric
– just to relax/social
– to commit suicide
– on teens/children because of the lack of knowledge about the effect of alcohol poisoning so drink repeatedly
2. Because inhaling alcohol vapors
When inhaling alcohol vapor continuously although the amount is small in a long time, for example in the factory, in the laboratory or at the time of using alcohol dilute it to lower the temperature of the body (compress.